Reference (Digital Media I – ART 207)

Eadweard Muybridge

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Eadweard Muybridge (/ˌɛdwərd ˈmbrɪ/; 9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the first name Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, and the surname Muybridge, believing it to be similarly archaic.[1]
At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York, and then to San Francisco. Planning a return trip to Europe in 1860, he suffered serious head injuries in a stagecoach crash in Texas.[2] He spent the next few years recuperating in England, where he took up professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process, and secured at least two British patents for his inventions.[2] He went back to San Francisco in 1867. In 1868 he exhibited large photographs of Yosemite Valley, which made him world-famous.
In 1874 Muybridge shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife’s lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable homicide.[3] In 1875 he travelled for more than a year in Central America on a photographic expedition.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.[4] In the 1880s, he entered a very productive period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion, capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate movements.
During his later years, Muybridge gave many public lectures and demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences, returning frequently to England and Europe to publicise his work. He also edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and industrial photography. He returned to his native England permanently in 1894. In 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of his equipment, was opened in his hometown.

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Aram Bartholl

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Aram Bartholl’s work creates an interplay between internet, culture and reality. How do our taken-for-granted communication channels influence us? Bartholl asks not just what humans are doing with media, but what media is doing with humans. Tensions between public and private, online and offline, techno-lust and everyday life are at the core of his work and his public interventions and installations, often entailing surprisingly physical manifestations of the digital world, challenge our concepts of reality and incorporeality. Bartholl has exhibited at MoMA Museum of Modern Art NY, Skulptur Projekte Münster, Palais de Tokyo, Hamburger Bahnhof and the Thailand Biennale among other as well as conducting countless workshops, talks and performances internationally. Bartholl lives and works in Berlin.

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Alan Resnick

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Carla Gannis

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Carla Gannis’ interest in digital semiotics and internet vernacular has inspired works such as The Garden of Emoji Delights (2014), in which Gannis reimagines Hieronymus Bosch’s 16th-century masterpiece with animated characters and emojis. In other digital paintings, gif animations, and videos, Gannis explores the dynamics of escapism and virtual reality inspired by contemporary technological innovation and its effect on everyday life. In Gannis’ words, her practice “examines the narrativity of 21st-century representational technologies and questions the hybrid nature of identity, where virtual and real embodiments of self diverge and intersect.”

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Cecelia Condit

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Born 1947 – Philadelphia, PA. Since the early 1980s Cecelia Condit’s narrative videos have explored the not-so-average experiences of the “average woman” in a social climate of sublimated violence, fear, and misogynist aggression. Her dark-humored works conflate fairy tale morals with the grisly sensationalism of tabloid headlines, incorporating live action, appropriated television images, and original music into frequently operatic narratives. Condit is a Professor of Film and Video at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
“My work centers around the theme of how bizarre events disrupt mundane lives. By contrasting the commonplace with the macabre, humor with the absurd, I address a reality that is both surprisingly believable, yet strange enough to belong only to the realm of fiction.”
— Cecelia Condit

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Christian Marclay

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Christian Marclay transforms sounds and music into visible, physical form through a prolific range of performances, collages, sculptures, installations, photographs, and videos. “I’ve always been interested in how sound is visualized,” he explains. Marclay began exploring sound in 1979, in performances in which he would manipulate turntables, playing them as if they were traditional instruments. More recently, he has explored his interest in a related abstract concept—time—by compiling clips from an enormous range of films into a 24-hour, single-channel video titled The Clock (2010). Part working timepiece (it runs in sync with the local time zone), part aural and visual montage (the work includes snatches of dialogue about time and sounds and images of every kind of clock imaginable), the film is a meditation both on time and the depiction of it.

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Cory Arcangel

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Through techniques of hacking, manipulating, recycling, and reconfiguring, Cory Arcangel turns the intersection of technology and culture into materials for making art. He works in a range of mediums, from music, film, painting, and performance to video games, websites, and software, often relying on appropriation of pop cultural idioms, particularly those found online. Some of his best known works include his Photoshop Gradient Demonstrations, digital paintings made from the software’s ubiquitous templates; Super Mario Clouds (2002), for which he hacked the classic video game to remove everything but its sunny backdrop; and Drei Klavierstücke op.11(2009), a version of Arnold Schönberg’s 1909 musical piece of the same name made from compiled YouTube clips of cats playing the piano. Arcangel is as forward-looking as he is nostalgic for obsolete technologies, and through his devotion to open-source code intends to further the cycle of appropriation he’s an integral part of and undermine the ideal of artistic originality. With his ironic touch and ability to mine the choicest bits of absurdity from the internet, Arcangel also freely admits that humor is a central concern of his practice.

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Daito Manabe

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Tokyo-based artist, interaction designer, programmer, and DJ.
Launched Rhizomatiks in 2006. Since 2015, has served alongside Motoi Ishibashi as co-director of Rhizomatiks Research, the firm’s division dedicated to exploring new possibilities in the realms of technical and artistic expression with a focus on R&D-intensive projects. Specially-appointed professor at Keio University SFC.
Manabe’s work in design, art, and entertainment takes a new approach to everyday materials and phenomenon. However, his end goal is not simply rich, high-definition realism by recognizing and recombining these familiar elemental building blocks. Rather, his practice is informed by careful observation to discover and elucidate the essential potentialities inherent to the human body, data, programming, computers, and other phenomena, thus probing the interrelationships and boundaries delineating the analog and digital, real and virtual.

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Eleanor Antin

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Working since the early 1960s, Eleanor Antin has created a body of work that explores history, contemporary culture, and identity from a feminist perspective. Before devoting herself to the visual arts, Antin was a poet and an actress. Drawing on this background, she has integrated language, character, costume, and voice into the mediums of painting, sculpture, and photography. Her disregard for the boundaries between art, performance, and theater opened possibilities for younger generations of artists working between the studio and the stage.

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Eva and Franco Mattes

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Eva and Franco Mattes (both born in Italy in 1976) are a duo of artists based in New York City. Since meeting in Berlin in 1994, they have never separated. Operating under the pseudonym 0100101110101101.org, they are counted among the pioneers of the Net Art movement and are renowned for their subversion of public media. They produce art involving the ethical and political issues arising from the inception of the Internet. The work investigates the fabrication of situations, where fact and fiction merge into one. They are based in Brooklyn, New York, but also travel frequently throughout Europe and the United States.

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Granular Synthesis

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Granular-Synthesis: In 1991 in Vienna, Hentschlager and German artist Ulf Langheinrich co-founded the duo Granular-Synthesis. The name refers to the technique of granular synthesis, which Hentschlager and Langheinrich applied to both sound and image.[2] Their multimedia installations and performances included Modell 5(1994), Areal (1997), Noisegate (1998) and Pol (1998). They toured worldwide, and several compilations of their works were released on DVD. They won the International Biennial competition in Nagoya, Japan, in 1995, as well as stipends in Austria and the United States.[3] 
Themes: Hentschlager has described his installations as “visceral and immersive”.[4] A recurring topic in his work is the human body; human expression; the way the brain processes the outside world; and how perception is colored by imagination and one’s individual psychology.[5] Toward this end, he follows research in psychology and neurology as well as in contemporary art and culture.[6] His current work focuses on nature and artifice from a post-utopian, post-science-fiction perspective.

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Marina Abramovic

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Since the early 1970s, Marina Abramović has been pushing past perceived limits of the body and mind, and exploring the complex relationship between artist and audience, through performances that challenge both herself and, in many instances, participants emotionally, intellectually, and physically. The concepts inspiring her works are key, as is the use of her own body to convey her ideas. She has been making art since childhood, and realized early on that it did not have to be produced in a studio, or even take a concrete form. “I understood that…I could make art with everything…and the most important [thing] is the concept,” she relates. “And this was the beginning of my performance art. And the first time I put my body in front of [an] audience, I understood: this is my media.”
In 2010 at MoMA, Abramović engaged in an extended performance called, The Artist Is Present. The work was inspired by her belief that stretching the length of a performance beyond expectations serves to alter our perception of time and foster a deeper engagement in the experience. Seated silently at a wooden table across from an empty chair, she waited as people took turns sitting in the chair and locking eyes with her. Over the course of nearly three months, for eight hours a day, she met the gaze of 1,000 strangers, many of whom were moved to tears.
“Nobody could imagine…that anybody would take time to sit and just engage in mutual gaze with me,” Abramović explained. In fact, the chair was always occupied, and there were continuous lines of people waiting to sit in it. “It was [a] complete surprise…this enormous need of humans to actually have contact.”

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Mattia Casalegno

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The Aerobanquets RMX is a series of immersive dining experiences focussed on taste perception.
Loosely based on the Futurist Cookbook, the (in)famous Italian book of surreal recipes and fantastical dinners published in 1932, the project is a multi-sensorial journey experienced in Mixed Reality.
Part manifesto, part artistic joke, the Futurist Cookbook is a collection of recipes, experiments, declamations and allegorical tales: here are recipes for ice cream on the moon; candied atmospheric electricities; nocturnal love feasts; sculpted meats.
The Cookbook is a provocative, visionary work on the future of nourishment, which well ahead of time touched on issues of post-capitalistic societies and labor that are so relevant to our times. Every society and era has a distinctive way of preparing and consuming food, and the Futurists were among the first artists to envision novel ways of approaching food based on the technological transformations of modernity.
How will augmented technologies revolutionize food consumption in the future?
In which ways do embodiment and memory influence our experience of food? How is perception processed neurologically by our brain?
The way we construct our reality is always a negotiation between our senses and what our brain is making of the environment around us. In its essence, the Aerobanquets RMX is about reframing our perceptions and changing the way we experience food.
It is not only a transformative experience, but a tool to reprogram our senses, they way we perceive. – Wall St. Magazine

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Hanne Lippard

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Hanne Lippard is a British artist who was born in 1984. Their work was featured in numerous exhibitions at key galleries and museums, including the Metro Pictures and the Haus der Kunst. Hanne Lippard has been featured in articles for the ArtDaily, the ARTFORUM and the ARTINFO. The most recent article is Sondra Perry Wins 2018 Nam June Paik Award written for the ARTFORUM in November 2018.

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Rachel Maclean

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Rachel Maclean (born 1987) is a multi-media artist. Using film and photography, she creates outlandish characters and fantasy worlds which she uses to delve into politics, society and identity.
Wearing colourful costumes and make-up, Maclean takes on every role in her films herself. She uses computer technology to generate her locations, and borrows audio from television and cinema to construct narratives with a comedic touch.
Maclean was born in Edinburgh. She lives and works in Glasgow.

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Mary Reid Kelley

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Mary Reid Kelley was born in Greenville, South Carolina in 1979. In videos and drawings filled with punning wordplay, Reid Kelley presents her take on the clash between utopian ideologies and the realities of women’s lives in the struggle for liberation and through political strife, wars, and other historical events. Performing scripted narratives in rhyming verse, the artist—with her husband Patrick Kelley and various family members—explores historical periods through fictitious characters such as nurses, soldiers, prostitutes, and saltimbanques. Adopting a stark black-and-white palette while synthesizing art-historical styles such as Cubism and German Expressionism, Reid Kelley playfully jumbles historical periods such as World War I and France’s Second Empire to trace the ways in which present concerns are rooted in the past.

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News From Nowhere – Moon and Jeon

https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-liverpool/exhibition/moon-kyungwon-and-jeon-joonho-news-nowhere

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South Korean artists Moon Kyungwon and Jeon Joonho’s new film commission Anomaly Strolls2018 has been shot in-part in Liverpool. Extending their project News From Nowhere 2009, the artists use science fiction to question the role and importance of art to our present day society. As they have said: ‘Sci-fi is always the fable of the present. By employing a way to look at the future instead of the present, we wanted to address current issues, especially in relation to what art is and what art could be.’ Filmed in deserted alleyways and pubs across the city, Anomaly Strolls reflects on the experience of being human today.

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Paul Pfeiffer

Paul Pfeiffer was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1966 but spent most of his childhood in the Philippines. Pfeiffer relocated to New York in 1990, where he attended Hunter College and the Whitney Independent Study Program. Pfeiffer’s groundbreaking work in video, sculpture, and photography uses recent computer technologies to dissect the role that mass media plays in shaping consciousness. In a series of video works focused on professional sports events—including basketball, boxing, and hockey—Pfeiffer digitally removes the bodies of the players from the games, shifting the viewer’s focus to the spectators, sports equipment, or trophies won. Presented on small LCD screens and often looped, these intimate and idealized video works are meditations on faith, desire, and a contemporary culture obsessed with celebrity. Many of Pfeiffer’s works invite viewers to exercise their imaginations or project their own fears and obsessions onto the art object. Several of Pfeiffer’s sculptures include eerie, computer-generated recreations of props from Hollywood thrillers, such as Poltergeist, and miniature dioramas of sets from films that include The Exorcist and The Amityville Horror.

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Pipilotti Rist

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Pipilotti Rist produces multi-projector video installations that fuse the corporeal and the spiritual in what have been called near-psychedelic experiences. Her rich vocabulary of sensual experience contrasts the familiar with the strange, teasing out our secret desires. Rist attempts to break down the barriers between public and private space, creating fantastic, pleasure-palace domestic interiors that include video, music, light effects, and furniture. “The idea,” she explains, “is that now we’ve explored the whole geographical world, pictures or films are the new, unexplored spaces into which we can escape.” In 2009 she created Pour Your Body Out, a 25-foot video installation projected in the atrium of the Museum of Modern Art. Visitors were encouraged to take off their shoes and lounge on big comfortable cushions while they experienced the colorful video projected overhead.

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Tabaimo

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Tabaimo (born 1975) is a contemporary Japanese artist whose immersive, thought-provoking video installations have been exhibited around the world. She combines hand-drawn images and digital manipulation to create large scale animations which evoke traditional Japanese woodblock prints (ukiyo-e) while presenting a pointed, complex view of Japanese society.

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Tala Madani

Tala Madani is known for creating paintings that look incisively and often irreverently at Middle-Eastern culture and gender issues. Madani typically represents male subjects in a child-like and simplified style, addressing themes including terrorism, tattoos, body hair removal, and prayer. In piss rainbow (2008), for example, a pyramid of men kneel in prayer, circular piss stains visible on each of their bottoms. Her paintings are often gestural and expressionistic, perhaps ironically echoing the painterly bravado attributed to male abstract artists of the mid 20th century.

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Tony Oursler

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A pioneer of new-media art since the mid-1970s, Tony Oursler is best known for his video projections and installation works that explore technology’s effects on the human mind. Honing in on much of humanity’s compulsive relationship with computers and virtual networks, Oursler orchestrates microcosmic scenes, tableaus, and interventions that convey the obsession, escapism, isolation, and sexual fetish that cause or grow out of technological dependence. His works include talking streetlights, an eight-foot-long five-dollar bill with an eerily animated Abe Lincoln, an enormous cell phone spewing disjointed snippets of conversations, and ghoulish heads muttering phrases like “You treat me like garbage. I told you I love you but I don’t. Thanks for nothing.” Oursler invites viewers into disorienting psychological mini-dramas, at once engaging in their humor and disturbing for their uncanny juxtapositions and keen, biting commentaries.

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Wolfgang Tillmans

Wolfgang Tillmans is an influential contemporary German photographer. Emerging in the 1990s with his snapshot documentations of youths, clubs, and LGBTQ culture, Tillman’s practice has expanded to include diaristic photography, large-scale abstraction, and commissioned magazine work. “I want the pictures to be working in both directions,” the artist has said. “I accept that they speak about me, and yet at the same time, I want and expect them to function in terms of the viewer and their experience.” Capturing landscapes from an airplane window, still lifes of crustaceans, or a portrait of the singer Frank Ocean, his work conveys the profundity of an exhaustive archive. Born on August 16, 1968 in Remscheid, West Germany, Tillmans spent the early part of his career in London after graduating from the Bournemouth and Poole College of Art and Design. In 2000, he was awarded the prestigious Turner Prize, marking the first time the prize had been awarded to a photographer or non-British artist. In 2017, the survey show “Wolfgang Tillmans: 2017” opened at the Tate Modern in London to critical acclaim. The artist currently lives and works in London, United Kingdom. His works are presently held in the collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, The Museum of Modern Art in New York, the Hamburger Bahnhof in Berlin, and the Kunstmuseum Basel, among others.

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Yasumasa Morimura

Since the early 1980s, Yasumasa Morimura has been embedding himself into iconic images appropriated from art history, mass media, and popular culture, producing photographs that simultaneously celebrate, satirize, and explore their enduring influence and the stories they convey. Humorously encapsulating his approach, he claims that by reconstructing historically resonant images, he “bring[s] them back to life as things of the present. A bit like reconstituting freeze-dried tofu and serving it up again to eat now.” Like Cindy Sherman, to whom he is compared and by whom he is influenced, Morimura uses makeup, costuming, and prosthetics to transform himself into the protagonists he portrays, while providing visual cues that hint at his masquerade. Among his best-known series is “Daughter of Art History” (begun 1985) in which he recreates canonical works by such artists as Johannes Vermeer and Frida Kahlo.
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